2 The quoted material is taken from slides presented to the committee by Mr. Akira Kawano (TEPCO) on November 26, 2012 (Kawano, 2012). Effective safety communication: Communications maintain a focus on safety. This report by the IAEA’s International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group INSAG describes the concept of ‘Safety Culture’ in connection with nuclear plant safety in relation to both organi- zations and individuals engaged in nuclear power activities. This report's recommendations to incorporate modern risk concepts into safety regulations and improve the nuclear safety culture will help the industry prepare for events that could challenge the design of plant structures and lead to a loss of critical safety functions. (p. 3425), The USNRC published a formal safety culture policy statement in 2011. The model, it says, is a comprehensive tool intended for all organisations that deal directly or indirectly with ionizing radiation, enabling them to set goals, implement changes, and measure progress. 1, Traits of a Healthy Nuclear Safety Culture, April 2013. Problem identification and resolution: Issues potentially impacting safety are promptly identified, fully evaluated, and promptly addressed and corrected commensurate with their significance. In this report we explore the current state of safety culture research, focusing on the current tools and methods for safety culture assessment. Lessons Learned: Nuclear Safety Culture. The USNRC does not review INPO inspection reports in detail, but the agency is aware of the overall results of these inspections. Noggerath et al. Some utilities have also voluntarily established high-level independent review groups that visit the plant and report to the utility’s senior management and/or board of directors (INPO, 2005). organizations engaged in activities directly related to nuclear installations shall establish policies that give due priority to nuclear safety. The earthquake and tsunami also initiated a severe nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Consequently, a number of organizations are responsible for plant safety: plant and equipment designers and manufacturers; constructors; plant owners/operators, from upper management through reactor operator and plant maintenance staff; and regulators who set, oversee, and enforce the standards and requirements for plant design, construction, and operation. • Design, manufacturing, and construction firms are responsible for building as much inherent safety and environmental protection into the plants as can be reasonably achieved. 4 Act for Establishment of Nuclear Regulation Authority (Act No. ... but the industry has learned through these tough messages on performance from respected colleagues. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) defines nuclear safety culture as the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individuals to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment. Key Messages Safety culture is a subset of the culture of the whole organization, comprising the mix of shared values, attitudes and patterns of behaviour that. 8 Letter from Senator Barbara Boxer, Chair of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, to USNRC Chairman Allison Macfarlane, November 26, 2013, concerning a USNRC decision to withhold certain information requested by the committee. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. The nuclear industry and its regulators can work together to promote nuclear safety, especially through the development of common understandings of problems and potential solutions. 4. The Japanese government contended that this association did not affect NISA’s independence: NISA has clear responsibilities for safety regulations pursuant to the Atomic Energy Basic Law and the Reactor Regulation Law and the functions of NISA are substantially separated, by the law, from those of other bodies or organizations concerned with the promotion or utilization of nuclear energy. Moreover, the USNRC took several steps to address this problem once it was discovered: the Davis-Besse plant was shut down for repair, the company was fined and subjected to more intensive regulatory scrutiny, and the USNRC took several steps to strengthen the safety culture components of its reactor oversight process (USNRC, 2011f). Prior to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, NISA was part of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry3 (METI), an aggressive advocate for promotion of nuclear power in Japan and abroad. If a plant receives a low rating, its chief executive officer and chief nuclear officer may be asked to make a presentation to INPO to explain what steps have been taken to correct deficiencies. Addendum II: “Cross-References” provides cross-references from Traits of a Healthy Nuclear Safety Culture to the safety culture guidance developed by the Department of Energy and the Energy Facility Contractors Group. Indeed, it is important for the USNRC to carefully consider the advice it receives from outside parties when it makes regulatory decisions. (2014, pp. i The following principles are described in i this document: i I I. A number of such have been made based on lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The regulator must be adequately funded and staffed with highly-competent subject matter experts. These organizations play different but complementary roles in meeting their shared responsibilities: • Regulators are independent institutional bodies whose focus is on protection of the public and the environment, not for the promotion of nuclear technology or protection of investment in assets. Including the public by extending communication and engagement is consistent with the principles that underlie a strong nuclear safety culture. Indeed, open and transparent communication is an important component of the nuclear safety culture and essential to maintaining confidence in nuclear power (Macfarlane, 2012). Decision-Making ..... 26 Respectful Work Environment ..... 30 7.3.3.1 Independence of the U.S. It also voluntarily proposed the FLEX initiative in response to the USNRC’s Mitigation Strategies Order (EA-12-049) for beyond-design-basis external events (see Chapter 5 and Appendix F). A selection of committee views is provided in this section to frame the committee’s recommendations in Section 7.4. INPO also provides technical consulting to its member companies on an as-needed basis. The concept of nuclear safety culture applies to every employee in the nuclear organization, from the. Leaders demonstrate commitment to safety. Preamble Clause iv and Article 10 of the Convention note that, Each Contracting Party shall take the appropriate steps to ensure that all. The statement clearly sets out the USNRC’s expectation “that individuals and organizations performing regulated activities establish and maintain a positive safety culture commensurate with the safety and security significance of their activities and the nature and complexity of their organizations and functions” (USNRC, 2005, p. 14). (IAEA, 2002, p. 3), There is international acceptance by the nuclear power community that a strong nuclear safety culture needs to be adopted universally: by senior management of organizations operating nuclear power plants, by individuals who work in those plants, and by regulatory bodies and other organizations that set nuclear power policies. Apply to Intelligence Analyst, Environmental Health and Safety Officer, Intern and more! Prior to 1974, for example, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was responsible for both promoting and regulating the use of nuclear power. The USNRC is currently involved in a rulemaking to determine whether filtered vents should be added to nuclear plants with Mark I and Mark II containments (see Sidebar 5.5, Appendix F, and Appendix L). There are tangible benefits associated with a more frank and direct relationship between the nuclear industry, nuclear plants, and host communities (Richardson et al., 2013, p. 266). The groups meet at regular intervals to review plant operations from a safety perspective and report their findings to the plant’s senior vice president and other plant management. 1. SAFETY MESSAGE FOR MARCH 2013 You would think that people would know how to walk safely in the workplace. This means, for example, the regulatory body should be technically competent, set high safety standards for itself, conduct its dealings with operators in a professional manner and show good judgment in its regulatory decisions. To be effectively independent, the regulatory body shall have sufficient authority and sufficient staffing and shall have access to sufficient financial resources for the proper discharge of its assigned responsibilities. 4. The biggest danger in trying to understand culture is to oversimplify it in our minds. The organization strongly endorses the nuclear safety culture as a key operating feature, and philosophy, of its membership (INPO, 2004) and also asserts that every nuclear power station needs a strong safety culture. Lochbaum et al. The agency cautions that. A recent letter from a House congressional committee9 stressed the importance of balance in USNRC regulatory decisions: In the Atomic Energy Act, Congress declared that nuclear energy should “make the maximum contribution to the general welfare (Section 1 (a))” which recognizes nuclear energy’s vital role in contributing to our nation’s energy security. The committee fully recognizes that any such disclosures need to be carefully planned and implemented so that they do not inhibit the full and prompt reporting of safety problems. The committee did not undertake a formal assessment of the status of the U.S. nuclear safety culture because that was not part of its study charge. 6 Lessons Learned: Offsite Emergency Management, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident for Improving Safety of U.S. Nuclear Plants, http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/Others/inf449.shtml, http://www.epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=94f17a8e-bf47-43f0-5627-96a1508794b7, http://energycommerce.house.gov/sites/republicans.energycommerce.house.gov/files/letters/20130115NRC, http://www.epw.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Minority.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=a79c7514-cf71-9bab-769a-0f4d16587726&Region_id=&Issue_id=, http://energycommerce.house.gov/sites/republicans.energycommerce.house.gov/files/letters/20130115NRC.pdf, http://www.ucsusa.org/news/press_release/nrc-should-reject-calls-to.html, http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/commission/speeches/2014/s-14-002.pdf, http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1314/ML13143A321.pdf, http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/licensing/renewal/applications.html, 2 Background on Japanese and U.S. Nuclear Plants, 3 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and Impacts on Japanese Nuclear Plants, 5 Lessons Learned: Plant Operations and Safety Regulations, 7 Lessons Learned: Nuclear Safety Culture, Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee, Technical Advisor, and Staff, Appendix B: Presentations, Breakout Sessions, and Visits, Appendix D: Operation and Support Organizations, Appendix E: Recommendations from Other Organizations, Appendix F: Regulator and Industry Actions in the United States, Appendix G: Hydrogen Control in Severe Accidents, Appendix H: Nuclear Plant Emergency Procedures and Guidelines, Appendix I: Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Appendix K: Tsunami Hazards in the Atlantic Ocean Basin, Appendix L: Factoring the Costs of Severe Nuclear Accidents into Backfit Decisions, Appendix M: Access to Timely and Reliable Information to Support Decision Making During a Nuclear Power Plant Accident. 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